Report of the i…
Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic (June, 2013)
VI. Conclusions and recommendations
157. There is a human cost to the political impasse that has come to characterize the
response of the international community to the war in the Syrian Arab Republic. The
desperation of the parties to the conflict has resulted in new levels of cruelty and
brutality, bolstered by an increase in the availability of weapons. Increased arms
transfers hurt the prospect of a political settlement to the conflict, fuel the
multiplication of armed actors at the national and regional levels and have devastating
consequences for civilians.
158. The erosion of the State and of political authority in parts of the country is
compounded by the fractious nature of the various parties claiming control of the
territory. Syrians are confronted with intensifying damage, displacement and despair.
War rages at key flashpoints, deepening the sectarian divide and spilling over into
159. While the nature of the conflict is constantly changing, there remains no
military solution. The conflict will end only through a comprehensive, inclusive
political process. The international community must prioritize the de-escalation of the
war and work within the framework of the final communiqué of the Action Group for
Syria (Geneva communiqué).
160. All parties are obliged to respect human rights and international humanitarian
law. Both they and their supporters share the responsibility to commit to a peaceful
161. Accountability must be re-emphasized at all levels.
162. Humanitarian access should be sustained and enlarged, with full commitment
from all parties.
163. The commission of inquiry renews the recommendations made in its previous
reports, and highlights those below.
164. The commission recommends that the international community:
(a) Support the peace process based on the Geneva communiqué and the
work of the Joint Special Representative of the United Nations and the League of
Arab States for Syria;
(b) Ensure that any peace negotiation is conducted within the framework of
international law, cognizant of the urgent need for a referral to justice at the national
and international levels;
(c) Commit to ensure the preservation of material evidence of violations and
international crimes to protect the right to truth of the Syrian people;
(d) Counter the escalation of the conflict by restricting arms transfers,
especially given the clear risk that the arms will be used to commit serious violations
of international human rights or international humanitarian law; States that exercise
influence on the parties to the conflict must take real and tangible steps to curb the
increasing influence of extremist factions;
(e) Sustain and increase the funding for humanitarian agencies and
operations inside the country, and help neighbouring countries affected by the
situation and secure the $1.5 billion of aid pledged at the donor conference held in
Kuwait on 30 January 2013.
165. The commission recommends that all parties:
(a) Reject sectarian rhetoric as a tactic of war;
(b) Commit to ensuring the preservation of material evidence of violations
and international crimes to protect the right to truth of the Syrian people;
(c) Allow immediate and full humanitarian access by humanitarian
organizations to all areas affected by fighting.
166. The commission recommends that the Government of the Syrian Arab
(a) Participate constructively in the peace process guided by a commitment
to human rights, democracy and a genuine desire for peace;
(b) Allow the commission of inquiry and the mechanism established by the
Secretary-General to investigate into the alleged use of chemical and biological or
toxin weapons to enter the country and to conduct investigations;
(c) Respect human rights and international humanitarian law, upholding
such basic principles as the need to prevent indiscriminate attacks on the population.
167. The commission recommends that the anti-government armed groups:
(a) Join the peace process in a constructive spirit, presenting a unified
position guided by shared commitments;
(b) Reject extreme elements and compel all groups to respect human rights
and international humanitarian law.
168. The commission recommends that OHCHR and other United Nations agencies:
(a) Consolidate the presence of OHCHR in the region, in coordination with
other United Nations agencies, in the pursuit of peace, democracy and human rights;
(b) Reinforce the protection of civilians through an effective, inter-agency
United Nations presence in the country.
169. The commission recommends that the Human Rights Council:
(a) Support the recommendations of the commission and its access to the
(b) Transmit the report of the commission to the Security Council through
170. The commission recommends that the General Assembly:
(a) Support the work of the commission, inviting it to provide regular
(b) Uphold the recommendations of the commission and exert its influence
towards a peaceful solution for the country./HRC/23/58
171. The commission recommends that the Security Council:
(a) Support the work of the commission and give it access in order to
provide periodic briefings on developments;
(b) Facilitate and underpin a comprehensive peace process for the country,
with the full participation of all stakeholders;
(c) Commit to ensure the accountability of those responsible for violations,
including possible referral to international justice.